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Information recently discovered in Dr. Bell’s files indicates that the individual shown in Figure 61 could be Columbus Eubanks and not R. W. Wall. This has been confirmed by Dennis Peterson, of the Spiro Mounds Archaeological Center, who showed the photograph to members of the Eubanks family. Following are revised captions for Figures 61 through 64. This change means the titles on the List of Figures on page xi and pages 73 and 74 are incorrect. On pages 29 and 33 the references to Mr. Wall being shown in Figure 61 should be ignored.



Figure 61: Columbus Eubanks and his wife Oda Eubanks

This photograph taken April 9, 1936 shows Columbus Eubanks and his wife Oda Eubanks of Route 2, Spiro, Oklahoma. Mr. Eubanks is holding an effigy pot from Spiro that he sold to Harry T. Bell, Dr. Robert E. Bell’s father. Columbus Eubanks was not a member of the Pocola Mining Company, but was a local Black man who was hired to dig at the Mound. Apparently, he was paid in artifacts. The effigy pot was one of the pieces he had from the Mound. This piece is shown in Figures 62, 63 and 64.
Another item he had was mentioned by Phil J. Newkumet, a supervisor for the third field season. He stated that he purchased an engraved conch shell from Eubanks for $6. Later, the shell was sold to James Durham for $200. After Durham’s death, the piece was sold to Roy Hathcock and is currently in the collection of John Baldwin. It was also shown in color on page 8 of the “Prehistoric American” Volume XXXVII, Number 3, 2003.


Figure 62: Eubanks effigy pot showing the front and back

This pot was purchased by Harry T. Bell of Marion, Ohio (Dr. Robert E. Bell’s father) on April 9, 1936, from Columbus Eubanks, who worked for the Pocola Mining Company. He is shown in Figure 61 holding this pot. This is one of two human effigy pots of this style found at the Spiro Mound and shown in Dr. Robert E. Bell’s photograph collection. This pot was probably used as a water bottle or a seed pot. This is a female figure kneeling on her shins with the calf of the leg showing underneath the thigh while the knees are slightly separated. The arms fall straight on the sides of the body with the forearms bent under the breasts. In this example, the fingers are indicated by incised lines. The face has indented areas for the eyes and mouth and another indentation is obvious in the center of the forehead. The earlobes are pierced and there is a topknot on the head.

The backside view shows the figure to have narrow hips, a clearly defined waist, and a larger upper body. The number “880” is Harry T. Bell’s inventory number. On the back of the neck is a loop that appears to show damage, possibly from use. The pierced earlobes and the topknot are visible. The round opening in the back of the head would be normal for a water bottle or seed pot. This is the piece shown in Figure 61. Full-page versions of these two views are presented in Figures 63 and 64.


Figure 63: Eubanks effigy pot

This pot was purchased by Harry T. Bell of Marion, Ohio (Dr. Robert E. Bell’s father) on April 9, 1936, from Columbus Eubanks, who worked for the Pocola Mining Company. He is shown in Figure 61 holding this pot. This is one of two human effigy pots of this style found at the Spiro Mound and both are documented in Dr. Robert E. Bell’s photograph collection. This pot was probably used as a water bottle or a seed pot. This is a female figure kneeling on her shins with the calf of the leg showing underneath the thigh while the knees are slightly separated. The arms fall straight on the sides of the body with the forearms bent under the breasts. In this example, the fingers are indicated by incised lines. The face has indented areas for the eyes and mouth and another indentation is obvious in the center of the forehead. The earlobes are pierced and there is a topknot on the head. This piece is shown in Figures 61, 62 and 64.

Figure 64: Back of the Eubanks effigy pot

This photograph shows the back of the human effigy pot acquired by Harry T. Bell on April 9, 1936, from Columbus Eubanks, who worked for the Pocola Mining Company. He is shown in Figure 61 holding this pot. This view shows the figure to have narrow hips, a clearly defined waist, and a larger upper body. The number “880” is Harry T. Bell’s inventory number. On the back of the neck is a loop that appears to show damage, possibly from use. The pierced earlobes and the topknot are visible. The round opening in the back of the head would be normal for a water bottle or seed pot. This piece is shown in Figures 61, 62 and 63.